Delving through Coroner’s cases may seem intrusive, uncomfortable and voyeuristic.
The reality is that the Coroner often makes recommendations … which may not be translated into practice for some time, wither due to systems issues (not least resource limitations) and lack of awareness. As rural doctors we have a tough remit – practicing the breadth of medicine, often without the backup and resources enjoyed by metropolitan specialists.
I believe that FOAMed can help bolster traditional sources of learning – particularly to “help bring quality care, out there” to rural Australians. Even more so when we recognise that ‘critical illness does not respect geography’ and so despite our resource limitations, we need to be able to at least initiate management for the whole gamut of clinical presentations.
Part of that process requires not just technical skills, but also awareness of non-technical skills and understanding limitations/difficulties inherent in our practice. Relevant Coroner’s findings can help shape our practice and are useful, if lessons learned are translated into tangible application in the bush.
One of my favourite papers is “If Nothing Goes Wrong is Everything Alright?‘ – an examination of statistical and psychological factors around rare events in medicine. If we accept that our work involves some degree of risk, for both doctor and patient, then we need to be able to assess this risk, manage it and ideally to mitigate against it.
But if such events are rare, then they may develop an attitude of ‘why bother? It won’t happen to me!’ amongst individual doctors, nursing staff or hospital admin. Worse, doctors may fall back on anecdote ‘I have never had difficulty with intubation!’ – whilst factually true, may be falsey reassuring when numbers of procedures is low.
The Elaine Bromiley case is one with which most GP-Anaesthetists will be familiar. For me this translated into examining not just my technical competence in airway management, but a long hard look at other factors. From this I have taken it upon myself to develop
- a crisis manual for use in the rural OT and ED, with adjuncts like ED prompt cards & an RSI kit dump
- use of a difficult airway trolley in my hospital, backed up with signage and protocols
- team training in crisis management with ED and OT staff
- a survey of rural GP-anaesthetists and their access to difficult airway equipment, presented at RMA2012, SMACC2013 and published in Rural & Remote Health
- FOAMed resources like this for sharing between rural doctors
…and that is just on one area of practice!
Here is a selection of Coroner’s Cases relevant to rural doctors.
Ever ordered an investigation? Of course you have! ALWAYS remember that the doctor who ordered the test is responsible for followup – so don;t discharge someone from the ED with a discharge summary saying ‘GP to follow up serum rhubarb’…and don’t send someone in for a scan then fail to act on the radiologist’s recommendations! Read this report and recommendation from the SA Coroner on need to followup, even to get police and ambulance to pay a visit if urgent…
Bottom line – don’t be afraid to awaken your patient and cancel the case. Use caution with iLMAs, they can be fiddly to remove once ETT sited – I have switched to AirQ-II iLMAs on this basis…
Extubation is potentially risky – this unfortunate case documents failed attempts to re-intubate a patient, extubated in an ICU on different site from previous (difficult) intubation. Lesson? Always inform colleagues of a difficult intubation – it may be very relevant down the track! Use the UK’s DIfficult Airway Society EXTUBATION GUIDELINES.
Highlights the need for appropriate pre-anaesthetic assessment, caution with obesity, OSA and opiates, as well as problems with assessment post op. Hindsight is 100%…
This can occur anywhere – in this case ICU, but more pertinently for rural doctors, in OT, in ED, or when transferring a ventilated patient. Like NAP4, this case demonstrates the need for mandatory ETCO2 monitoring wherever an airway is managed. Period.
Talking through a procedure is the ultimate test of whether you can do it. This case pertains particularly to difficulties with the growing problem of allergies causing anaphylaxis, the need for familiarity with anaphylaxis guidelines, & the huge challenges faced by remote area nurses and the DMOs who support them. Truly ‘critical illness does not respect geoggraphy’
One of the problems of psychiatric sedation is that patients risk loss of airway protective reflexes – I now approach such cases with the same manner as sedation int he ED/OT, mindful that they are unfasted and may have comorbidities, but that an elective pre-anaesthetic check is unfeasible when agitation causes a risk to self or others. ETCo2 monitoring and equipment to manage a difficult airway should be to hand, and a thorough ‘risk assessment’ made. I use a prompt with a psych safe sedation matrix as a helpful guide.
A young lady makes a deliberate, considered attempt at suicide – successfully. This case raises issues of suicide risk assessment. I now use the TRAAPED SILO SAFE method discussed in ‘Emergency FOAMed’ section
A sad case, highlighting that despite thorough risk assessment, a determined patient may inflict self-harm. The need for 1:1 nursing and removal of any potential weapons etc is the standard – whether this is achievable with limited staff is a problem we often face.
SAH is a diagnosis that can be missed, with this case obfuscated by a falsely reassuring scan despite ongoing headaches. It also demonstrated a failure of the receiving hospital to ‘marry’ referring doctor’s letter of referral with the patient in the ED – but perhaps could have been mitigated in some part by a phone call from the GP. Regardless, it demonstrates some of the difficulties in communication between referring and admitting teams – for which we could all do better.
Headaches need thorough workup, especially when ongoing and repeated. History, history and history…
In South Australia we are now well supported with backup from the Integrated Cardiovascular Clinical Network (iCCNet) providing 24/7 assistance with ECG interpretation and patient disposition for rural doctors. Hopefully other States have the same. Check out their site for protocols etc if not
Emphasises the need for rural doctors to consider prehospital assessments patient risk factors, use of serial ECG and troponins and available back up when evaluating a patient with chest pain.
In some areas, getting doctors to attend nursing home patients is difficult – meaning that many depend on busy and overcrowded EDs for same-day care. Hopefully this is one area in which rural doctors can excel – as we are both GP, nursing home deputising service and ED doctor all rolled into one!
Thinking septic arthritis? Then the joint needs to be examined. Period.
Failing to ask about allergies can lead to disaster. The Coroner also makes a comment on the dearth of rural doctors in regional Australia and an ageing workforce.
Stoic patients and the inherent difficulties in recognising evolving sepsis, can conspire to cause death. Whether implementation of charts to aid identification of the deteriorating patient will be translated to differences in morbidity and mortality remains to be seen. Sepsis still kills…
Leading on from sepsis, delay to definitive surgery for suspected faecal peritonitis can be disastrous. Again medical practitioners may struggle in the face of a risk of sudden acute deterioration in an otherwise stable patient.
Assessement of paediatric patients for dehydration is something we all do – but can be difficult, with skin turgor less useful in hypernatraemic dehydration. Consideration of admission, particularly when parents face a prolonged travel to/from medical review, low threshold for admission and both careful examination and explanation are useful reminders from this unfortunate case.
A blocked VP shunt is not a case we see often – but needs a high index of suspicion and again highlights the need for access to old notes, in this case old CT scans. Digital radiology may be of assistance in the future.
Reliance upon haemodynamic measurements alone is falsely reassuring – we know this from other causes of trauma. Similarly when there is bleeding, one needs to ‘find the bleeding, stop the bleeding’ and replace with blood products.
If a child is born with no pulse but electrical activity detected on ECG, then is this PEA sufficient to decide whether stillbirth vs live birth. The Coroner has made a determination.
The Coroner makes recommendations, particularly regarding home birth of twin and breech babies and need for either midwife or medical practitioner to conduct such births.
PPH is one of those crises that both obstetrician, anaesthetist and the team around them need to be familiar with. One can make a case for ready availability of checklists, a PPH box and simple effective medication in the rural setting.
Failure to consider neonatal GBS sepsis in the face of a negative vaginal screening swab highlights some of the problems of screening – as well as the potential of administering unnecessary antibiotics to women who test positive when screened but are free of GBS at delivery. The Coroner calls for a rapid screen intrapartum – a test we do not (yet) have, but which would clearly obviate false positive/negative tests at 37 weeks. Regardless of screening results, PROM needs to be remembered as a risk for neonatal sepsis.
Whilst spinal headache is not infrequent (1% cited here), ongoing headache requires review – and that any discussion needs to be documented, both before procedure and afterwards.